港澳台图库

Filters and Filtering

The use of Internet filters to block constitutionally protected speech, including content on social networking and gaming sites, compromises First Amendment freedoms and the core values of librarianship. Internet safety for children and adults is best addressed through educational programs that teach people how to find and evaluate information.

Research demonstrates that filters consistently both over- and underblock the content they claim to filter. Filters often block adults and minors from accessing a wide range of constitutionally protected speech. Content filters are unreliable because computer code and algorithms are still unable to adequately interpret, assess, and categorize the complexities of human communication, whether expressed in text or in image.

"The negative effects of content filters on Internet access in public libraries and schools are demonstrable and documented. Consequently, consistent with previous resolutions, the 港澳台图库 cannot recommend filtering. However, the 港澳台图库recognizes that local libraries and schools are governed by local decision makers and local considerations and often must rely on federal or state funding for computers and internet access. Because adults and, to a lesser degree minors, have First Amendment rights, libraries and schools that choose to use content filters should implement policies and procedures that mitigate the negative effects of filtering to the greatest extent possible. The process should encourage and allow users to ask for filtered websites and content to be unblocked, with minimal delay and due respect for user privacy."

鈥斕

港澳台图库Statements and Policies on Internet Filtering and Access to Online Information

听(2015)听听

(2019)
The digital environment offers opportunities for accessing, creating, and sharing information. The rights of minors to retrieve, interact with, and create information posted on the Internet in schools and libraries are extensions of their First Amendment rights.

(2019)
Digital resources and services allow libraries to significantly expand the scope of information available to users. Like all resources and services provided by the library, provision of access to digital resources and services should follow the principles outlined in the Library Bill of Rights to ensure equitable access regardless of content or platform.

听(2001)

(1997)
On June 26, 1997, the United States Supreme Court in Reno v. American Civil Liberties Union, 521 U.S. 844 (1997), issued a sweeping reaffirmation of core First Amendment principles and held that communications over the Internet deserve the highest level of Constitutional protection.

International Statements on the Internet and Access to Online Information

(2014)
International Federation of Libraries /听FAIFE (Committee on Freedom of Access to Information and Freedom of Expression)

港澳台图库Publications and Toolkits

(2017)
港澳台图库Intellectual Freedom Committee
Guidelines to provide public and school libraries with information about how to select, configure, manage, and assess content filters to minimize the negative effects on free inquiry and the privacy of library users.

(2021)
Edited by Martin Garnar听and Trina Magi with 港澳台图库Office for Intellectual Freedom
The 10th听edition manual is an indispensable resource for day-to-day guidance on maintaining free and equal access to information for all people with a chapter titled "Censorship, Challenged Resources, and Internet Filtering".

Fencing Out Knowledge:听Impacts of the Children's Internet Protection Act 10 Years Later (2014)
By Kristen R. Batch with 港澳台图库Office for Information Technology Policy and 港澳台图库Office for Intellectual Freedom

(2013)
By Deborah Caldwell Stone published in American Libraries

(2010)
By Theresa Chmara published in AASL's Knowledge Quest

(2010)
By Sarah Houghton published in Library Technology Reports

Why Filters Won't Protect Children or Adults (2004)
By Nancy Kranich published in Library Administration & Management

(2002)
By June Pinnell-Stevens published in American Libraries

Articles and White Papers on Filtering

(2021)
Center for Democracy and Technology

听(2018)
by听Andrew K. Przybylski and Victoria Nash, published in听Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking

(2017)
By Chris Petersen, Shannon M. Oltmann, and Emily J.M. Knox, published in the International Journal of Communication

(2017)
By Andrew K. Przybylski and Victoria Nash published in the Journal of Pediatrics
"Contrary to our hypotheses, policy, and industry advice regarding the assumed benefits of filtering we found convincing evidence that Internet filters were not effective at shielding early adolescents from aversive online experiences."

(February 2013)
by the ACLU of Rhode Island

Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) and E-rate


Information provided by the 港澳台图库Advocacy and Public Policy Office.

,听539 U.S. 194 (2003)
(CIPA Before the Supreme Court)


Information provided by the 港澳台图库Advocacy and Public Policy Office.

(report and regulations implementing CIPA)

(2012)
By Bob Bocher with the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction

(2012)
By Theresa Chmara with Freedom to Read Foundation

(2012)
By Theresa Chmara published in American Libraries

(2016)
National Conference of State Legislatures (updated periodically)

Filtering Software听

(Note: The 港澳台图库 does not endorse or recommend any internet filtering software. These resources are provided for those interested in learning more about the operation and effectiveness of filtering software.)

Deloitte Risk Services, 听2008 (Prepared for the European Union's 鈥淪afer Internet plus Programme鈥)

(2006)
By Heins, M., Cho, C. and Feldman, A.,
Brennan Center for Justice at the NYU School of Law, Free Expression Policy Project

(2008)
Sarah Houghton and the San Jos茅 Public Library

(2008)
Philip B. Stark
I/S: A Journal of Law and Policy for the Information Society

(2007)
By R. Radom published in LIBRES: Library and Information Science Research Electronic Journal

(2002)
By Nancy Willard
also see the听.

(2016)
By Bieke Zaman and Marije Nouwen

Webcasts

. Chicago, IL:听.
Featured Speakers: Doug Archer, Bob Bocher, Deborah Caldwell-Stone, Jamie LaRue, Michael Robinson
Recorded: September 15, 2016

. Chicago, IL: American Association of School Librarians (AASL)
Featured Speakers: Doug Archer, Bob Bocher, Deborah Caldwell-Stone, Jamie LaRue, Michael Robinson
Recorded: September 2015

听Chicago, IL: American Association of School Librarians (AASL)
Featured Speakers: Gwyneth Jones
Recorded: September 2014

Additional Resources on Internet Filtering, Digital Rights, and Online Safety

港澳台图库/Association for Library Service to Children,听听


"The ACLU believes in an uncensored Internet, a vast free-speech zone deserving at least as much First Amendment protection as that afforded to traditional media such as books, newspapers, and magazines."


"ConnectSafely.org is a Silicon Valley, Calif.-based nonprofit organization dedicated to educating users of connected technology about safety, privacy, and security. Here you鈥檒l find research-based safety tips, parents鈥 guidebooks, advice, news, and commentary on all aspects of tech use and policy."


"EFF defends the Internet as a platform for free speech, and believes that when you go online, your rights should come with you."

听and听听National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, 2001-2015

(2014)
"Internet censorship and surveillance are growing global phenomena. ONI鈥檚 mission is to identify and document Internet filtering and surveillance, and to promote and inform wider public dialogues about such practices".

  • (2014)


"Peacefire.org was created in August 1996 to represent the interests of people under 18 in the debate over freedom of speech on the Internet."

Assistance and Consultation

The staff of the Office for Intellectual Freedom is available to answer questions or provide assistance to librarians, trustees, educators and the public about internet filtering. Areas of assistance include policy development, First Amendment issues, and professional ethics. Inquiries can be directed via email to oif@ala.org or via phone at 800-545-2433, extension 4220.

Updated May 2017